Kaolin and Metakaolin

Studies have shown metakaolin can enable the associated CO2 emissions of producing concrete to be reduced significantly.


Kaolinite is an industrial mineral belonging to the group of aluminosilicates. The term kaolin is used to describe a group of relatively common clay minerals with an enhanced concentration of kaolinite and is produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals. It is a soft, earthy, usually white, mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay).

Kaolin’s commercial attributes primarily revolve around being chemically inert over a wide pH range, brightness, film strength, whiteness, opacity, gloss, viscosity, low heat and low electrical conductivity, which leads to a diversified range of industrial applications.

Direct Shipping Ore (DSO)

Zeotech’s approved mining lease  (ML 80126) hosts high-grade kaolin near surface, offering cost effective immediate access to direct shipping ore (DSO). Updated JORC Jan 2022, confirms an indicated/measured resource of more than 3.5 million tonne asaying 37.53% Al2O3, 0.40% Fe2O3 , wvhich remains open in all directions (circa 5% of the Project area being drilled), leaving potential for the resource to be significantly upgraded. The Toondoon project representing some of the highest-grade alumina, low iron raw ore kaolin in Australia.

The high alumina content will allow the ore to be highly suitable to a number of sectors including the white cement industry, refractories, and fibreglass manufacturing.


Metakaolin is a semi-calcined kaolin (produced typically at temperatures between 550°C and 800°C), which is used to enhance the performance characteristics of cement-based mortars, concretes, and related products. It contributes to increased compressive and flexural strength, reduced permeability and shrinkage, greater durability, reduces potential for efflorescent and control degradation caused by alkali silica reaction.

Green Cement

Metakaolin has also shown increasing demand as a supplementary cementitious replacement for clinker, a key ingredient in cement production, due to its potential to materially reduce the carbon intensity of producing cement, resulting in green cement.

The cement and concrete industry represents circa 8% of global emissions and studies have shown metakaolin can enable the associated CO2 emissions of producing concrete to be reduced by up to 40%.

The Australian cement and concrete industry has declared its commitment to net zero carbon concrete by 2050.